Prostatepedia spoke with Dr. Himisha Beltran, an Assistant Professor of Medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College in New York City, about diagnosing neuroendocrine prostate cancer.
How is small-cell or neuroendocrine prostate cancer diagnosed? Biopsy? Imaging?
Dr. Himisha Beltran: Small-cell or neuroendocrine prostate cancer is diagnosed by tumor biopsy. The pathologist typically makes the diagnosis by looking at the morphologic features of the cancer under a microscope and may perform additional testing to look at expression of neuroendocrine markers or classical prostate markers to support the diagnosis.
One of the reasons why neuroendocrine prostate cancer was thought to be so rare was that doing metastatic biopsies on patients already diagnosed with prostate cancer was just not done in the clinic. It is only recently that we are recommending biopsies to look for neuroendocrine prostate cancer in select patients with aggressive clinical features and low PSA levels. Biopsies are also being considered to look for other emerging molecular targets. There are now several prostate cancer clinical trials targeting different mutations and alterations.
An obvious next step is to try to diagnose neuroendocrine prostate cancer noninvasively. Imaging is a noninvasive way to detect different cancers, but there hasn’t been any sort of imaging tool yet that can really identify these patients. We’re starting to see clues that there may be some molecular markers that are expressed that might help future research in this area. Another noninvasive approach we have been investigating is the use of liquid biopsies that include circulating tumor cells as well as circulating tumor DNA to see if there are clues that can help us identify these patients without a biopsy. This is still in research development.